Acute Liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening disease and is determined by coagulopathy (with INR≥1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy as a result of severe liver injury in patients without preexisting liver disease. Since there are problems with liver transplantation including lack of donors, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and high costs of this process, new therapeutic approaches alongside current treatments are needed. The placenta is a tissue that is normally discarded after childbirth. On the other hand, human placenta is a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which is easily available, without moral problems, and its derived cells are less affected by age and environmental factors. Therefore, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) can be considered as an allogeneic source for liver disease. Considering the studies on MSCs and their effects on various diseases, it can be stated that MSCs are among the most important agents to be used for novel future therapies of liver diseases. In this paper, we will investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells through migration and immigration to the site of injury, cell-to-cell contact, immunomodulatory effects, and secretory factors in ALF.